The strength of a material is the capability to bear an applied load without failure. The stresses that act on the material cause deformation of the material in several ways. The deformation of a material is known as strain when those deformations too are placed on a unit basis. In order to measure the load capacity, the stress and strains that are created must be calculated. Once the stress and strain within the sample material are known, the strength, its deformations and its stability can be calculated. Tensile testing equipment ensures the quality of the products. Tensile testing is one of the most important tests that is conducted in every industry verticals.

 

Tensile testing is the application of uniaxial force to evaluate the performance of the test sample until it breaks apart. The test can be used to record characteristics of elongation, deformation and relaxation of elastomers. Tensile testing is a part of quality control to ensure product safety and integrity.

Applications of tensile testing are:

  • Electrical and electronics
  • Automotive
  • Safety, Fitness, Health
  • Packages and packaging materials
  • Medical applications and devices
  • Pharmaceutical products and packaging
  • Textile industry
  • Plastics, elastomers and rubbers
  • Paper and board

Tensile strength tester tests the sample material by cutting it in dog bone shape having defined size in accordance with various standards. The strength of the plastic is measured by tensile sample preparation. Due to the popularity of plastic materials and their light weight tendency, the materials have a wide number of uses and enhancements are made to substitute old materials such as wood and metal.

 

Procedure to conduct a tensile test are:

  • A dog shaped sample is cut to conduct the test
  • This sample is held in between the two jaws i.e. upper and lower jaws of the computerised tensile testing machine
  • The machine is switched on and the values are set that is applied to the sample
  • The jaws move in opposite directions when the machine starts. It causes an application of tension on the sample
  • The test is stopped when the sample breaks.
  • The machine stops and the load is recorded

 

The results of tensile tests give information about the mechanical properties of the material. Stretching the sample material until it fractures provides material’s complete tensile profile. The breakage point is the correct strength of the material. The complete analysis of the material under forces of elongation through stress to strain charts provides several characteristics of the material and predicts its behaviour.